The directives aim to assist claimants in proving the causation of damages and product defectiveness in complex AI systems, creating legal certainty for providers.
On 28 September 2022, the European Commission issued two proposed directives to reform and clarify liability rules on artificial intelligence (AI):
- The Directive on Adapting Non-Contractual Civil Liability Rules to Artificial Intelligence (AI Liability Directive) introduces rules on evidence and causation to facilitate civil claims for damages in respect of harm to end users caused by AI systems.
- The Directive on Liability for Defective Products (Revised Product Liability Directive) seeks to repeal and replace the 1985 Product Liability Directive (Directive 85/374/EEC) with an updated framework to better reflect the digital economy. The Revised Product Liability Directive proposes to explicitly include AI products within the scope of its strict liability regime and to modify the burden of proof for establishing defectiveness of technically or scientifically complex products like AI systems.